Spinney.2019. p. 28. Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology at several colleges and universities including for over 40 years at Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He has over 1,300 publications in 12 languages and 40 books and monographs. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored, are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. For more of his articles on CEH, see his Author Profile.  Appenzeller, 2018. p. 852.  Appenzeller, 2018. p. 852. by Dr Jerry Bergman Neanderthals are our closest extinct relatives, but for a long time, they had a reputation for being pretty backward. Early modern humans, for example, made cave paintings. But even though Neanderthals used pigments and decorated themselves with eagle claws and shells, there was no clear proof that they painted [pictures in]caves.  Spinney.2019. p. 30  Quoted in Spinney. 2019. p. 28. Consequently, from this evidence, University of Leiden Archaeology Professor Marie Soressi, admitted, “The discovery adds to a growing body of evidence upending the idea that Neanderthals were less evolved than early modern humans. . . . These cave paintings are the very last piece of evidence we were lacking.” Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology geochronologist Dirk Hoffmann admits the major reason we didn’t know Neanderthals were cave painters until now is because it’s hard to figure out when cave art was created. The most common dating method can only be used on organic material, like bones, so it usually doesn’t work for cave paintings. Another [dating] technique uses the rate of uranium’s radioactive decay as a clock. But it required lots of material to come up with a date, and cave paintings are too rare to risk damaging. Rock art “is unique, it’s precious — there’s a lot of pressure on you not to make a mistake.”  Actually they are not evolving, but our picture of them is. Drastically. Science has moved the picture of Neanderthals from our primitive brutish less evolved evolutionary ancestors to the typical family next door. The latest study concluded they were “people who liked nothing better than spending time indoors around the fire . . . and having friends over for dinner.” A report in Science wrote “Once seen as brute cavemen, Neandertals have gained stature as examples of sophisticated technology and behavior have turned up in their former territory across Europe.”  Spinney.2019. p. 30 We also know they learned to work with animal hides, “turning them into leather and stitching them together with long strips of hide, so they could have made simple tents. By lighting a fire inside a tent, they could have raised the temperature from -20˚C to 20˚C and, through such engineering of their environment, endured a cold winter night.” As a result of this technology, Professor Matt Pope concluded, “For hundreds of miles around, there isn’t going to be any bubble of warm, survivable air other than the one the Neanderthals have managed to capture and seal.” piled up stones and wood to create windbreaks inside the shelter. Later, they began building windbreaks in the open, using wood and even mammoth bones. At La Folie, a 60,000-year-old site near Poitiers in France, post holes preserved in sediment point to some kind of circular wooden structure, perhaps covered with skins or brush [that was built to protect Neanderthal families].  Tim Appenzeller. 2018. Europe’s Firsts Artists Were Neanderthals. Science. 359(6378): 852. Professor Matt Pope and other Neanderthal researchers concluded Neanderthals possessed the technical skills to construct warm dwellings and had even “mastered the art of combining different materials, binding stone points to wooden hafts with animal sinew or plant fiber to make spears, for example, and sealing the joints with resin or birch bark pitch.” They also unearthed “shells from a fourth Spanish cave, pigment-stained and pierced as if for use as body ornaments.” Catalan Institute of Human Paleoecology, Professor María Gema Chacón and her colleagues, have uncovered one 300-square-meter cave floor that Neanderthals lived in. One level, contained over 40 hearths, at which “You can still smell the roasted deer.”  Laura Spinney.2019. Cozy up with the Neanderthals, the first humans to make a house a home. New Scientist. 241(3216): 28-31. February 9-15. p. 28. This conclusion is based on the finding that all the claims of fragments found of pre-modern human ancestors, such as the most famous, Lucy, were found, not in caves or even near caves, or rock shelters, but on the plains. Lucy was found on the hilly plains of Hadar in the Afar region of Ethiopia, a country in Africa. This was not the case of Neanderthal bones, many, or even most, of which were found in caves. One writer, Spinny, adds that “evidence is growing that . . . Neanderthals may have been the original homebodies. A picture is emerging of their domestic life that would have been unthinkable just a few years ago. Far from being brutish, they may have enjoyed nothing more than spending time indoors around a cozy fire.” https://www.theverge.com/2018/2/22/17041426/neanderthals-cave-painting-spain-uranium-dating  Quoted in Spinney.2019. p. 30  Rachel Becker. 2018. Ancient cave paintings turn out to be by Neanderthals, not modern humans. morphological analysis of plant microfossils, to identify material entrapped in dental calculus from five Neanderthal individuals from the north Spanish site of El Sidrón. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for inhalation of wood-fire smoke and bitumen or oil shale and ingestion of a range of cooked plant foods.  Appenzeller, 2018. p. 852. Living in a fridge cold environment was one issue the Neanderthals faced, but not the only one. If family groups hunted and shared meat and lived at their butchery sites, the smell could have attracted scavengers such as wolves and lions. Thus, a “cave or rock shelter could have contained the smell while allowing its occupants to control access and stay safe.” Evidence of this was the large number of fire pits “found at many Neanderthal living sites, some containing burnt bones. Armed with light and a means of warding off dangerous animals, Neanderthals could bring sleeping and food-sharing activities together in a single space – home.” For example, at a site in southern Jordan, Neanderthals One reason they lived in cave homes could include the fact that necessity “may well have spawned this particular invention because the Europe that Neanderthals inhabited . . . was far colder and more arid than it is today – and with temperatures falling to -20˚C at times, and not rising above 12˚C even in summer.” This cold would be a major survival problem. Life around camp fires is common today, and affected social interactions which likely included gossip, complaints, practical discussions of life problems, a variety of concerns, telling of stories, and discussions of daily activities and about the things that matter to humans, especially the events that emotionally bind people. A fire social gathering around food also “provides opportunities for non-verbal communication in the form of eye contact and who sits where, and for other social bonding activities such as singing and dancing. From this and other research, it sounds like the Neanderthals were very much like us, which we would expect if they were the children of Adam and Eve, which both they and we are. I can only say welcome to the family.  Becker. 2018.  Appenzeller, 2018. p. 852.  Appenzeller, 2018. p. 853.  Spinney.2019. p. 30 Hoffmann believes he has been able to figure out how to solve these problems, and as a result concluded the cave paintings date at the exact time the Neanderthals were believed to have lived.  Spinney.2019. p. 30  Spinney.2019. p. 28. Max Planck Institute Professor for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, Jean-Jacques Hublin added about the new research: “People saw cave painting as a major gap between Neandertals and modern humans. This discovery [of Neanderthal cave painting] reduces the distance.” The unanimity of this conclusion was stressed as follows: “For once, the fractious scientists who study the Neandertals agree about something: that a study has dropped a bombshell on their field, by presenting the most persuasive case yet that our vanished cousins had the cognitive capacity to create art.” The conclusion of the art experts was, “Neandertal artistic creativity [was] equivalent to the art and symbolism practiced by modern humans.”  Becker. 2018. Emphasis added. Neanderthals were also fairly sophisticated cooks who consumed a wide variety of food. Findings at digs and dental calculus indicate they boiled bones to extract nutrients, used wild herbs such as yarrow to flavor their meat with, and even at times, adopted a vegetarian diet. Neanderthals show evidence of medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus. Specifically the scientists used The newest evidence points to the conclusion that many cave paintings were done by Neanderthals. In one recent example, we now have evidence that Neanderthals decorated their abode with artwork. This is important because “few researchers imagined them engaging in one of the most haunting practices in human prehistory: creating paintings—vehicles for symbolic expression—in the darkness of caves.”  Karen Hardy et al., 2012. Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus. Natur wissenschaften. 99(8); 671-626. August.  Appenzeller, 2018. p. 852.  W.L. Jungers, 1988. “Lucy’s length: Stature reconstruction in Australopithecus afarensis (A.L.288-1) with implications for other small-bodied hominids.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 76 (2): 227–231. A study published in the leading American science magazine concluded after a study of cave paintings that  Spinney. 2019. p. 28.  Spinney.2019. p. 30  Amanda G. Henry. 2011. Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium). PNAS. 108(2): 486-491. January. A home is important because, as Matt Pope, an archaeologist at University College London, argues, home “marked a critical threshold in the long march towards civilization. . . . a conceptual leap that shaped the way our ancestors thought and interacted.” For most of prehistory, the assumed time before we have written records, no evidence exists of human presence in caves or even rock shelters.  Spinney.2019. P. 31(Visited 414 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Man City goalscorer Leroy Sane: Fernandinho return made differenceby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveManchester City ace Leroy Sane hailed Fernandinho for victory over Liverpool.Sane struck in the 2-1 triumph.“Everyone knows Fernandinho is important for us,” Sane explained after the win.“He has to defend the ball, win the ball, pass the ball!“He had amazing game and I’m so pleased he is back for us.”
TagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say Vives insists Barcelona have no regrets selling Alcacerby Carlos Volcano9 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveBarcelona chief Josep Vives insists there’s no regrets over the sale of Paco Alcacer.Alcacer is starring with Borussia Dortmund this season, while Barca are now in the market for a new backup striker.But Vives says they’re happy with the squad’s makeup.”There is no regret about the departure of Paco Alcacer. The management was very happy with him,” he said. “We are happy that things are going well.”
Man Utd boss Solskjaer: We’re working on goalscoringby Paul Vegas22 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveManchester United manager Ole Gunnar Solskjaer has revealed he works on every aspect of football in his training sessions.Solskjaer is under pressure to keep his job after a poor start to the season, which sees United lay in tenth on the Premier League table with nine points from seven games.Speaking ahead of Thursday’s clash with AZ Alkmaar in the Europa League, Solskjaer said: “We work on the whole game.”Defending, attacking, scoring goals. You see these players in training and you see the quality. You hope it’s going to be one of these feel-good nights.”It creates a lot of confidence when you score. It’s your job to criticise or praise. It’s our job to just always focus on the next one and scoring goals is the most difficult part in the game of football.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
Some 105 small business owners from communities in West Central St. James are to benefit from a $26.5 million training programme, which will enable them to better manage and ensure the sustainability of their operations.The training, being conducted by the Jamaica Business Development Corporation (JBDC), got underway on Wednesday, April 10, at the Sunset Beach Hotel in Montego Bay, with the first 35 participants from Mount Salem.It is being funded through the Constituency Development Fund (CDF) of Member of Parliament for West Central St. James, Hon. Sharon Ffolkes Abrahams.During the two-day session, the participants, which included grocers, craft and block makers, and cook shop operators, received instruction in areas such as product and market analysis, market research, promotion, record keeping, financial management and financing. The other 70 beneficiaries will be trained during two sessions to be held later this month. At the end of the training, outstanding participants will receive vouchers valued at $20,000 each, which will enable them to acquire inputs to enhance their operations.Addressing the closing session on Thursday, April 11, Mrs. Ffolkes Abrahams, who is also Minister of State in the Ministry of Industry, Investment and Commerce, congratulated the participants and charged them to use the knowledge gained to make their operations a success. She stated that small businesses are the “engines that are going to turn the country’s economy around”.“I want to ensure that you are given the tools necessary to succeed in business because I know that you all have the qualities to succeed in whatever you do, as I have seen you do creative things,” she stated. Craft vendor, Amara Gilchrist, who was one of the beneficiaries, expressed gratitude to Mrs. Ffolkes Abrahams and the JBDC for conducting the training exercise.Ms. Gilchrist, who is a craft vendor, said she learnt a lot over the two days. “Even if I don’t get the grant, I have gathered some information, which will help me with my business,” she told JIS News.Cook shop operator, Orrett Morgan, also stated his appreciation, and urged the participants to put the opportunity to good use. By Glenis A. Rose, JIS Reporter
New Delhi: Soon after the announcement of poll dates in the states of Haryana and Maharashtra, the Congress on Saturday charted out itspoll strategies to take on ruling party Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in the states of Maharashtra and Haryana. The Congress has decided to raise the issues of rampant farmers’ suicides, huge job loss and unemployment, rise in corruption as major poll planks in Maharashtra and Haryana assembly polls which are scheduled to be held on October 21 in single-phase polling. Also Read – 2019 most peaceful festive season for J&K: Jitendra SinghWhile talking to reporters, Congress spokesperson Pawan Khera said, “The governments in Maharashtra and Haryana, which are led by BJP, are trying to deflect all important issues such as the plight of farmers, unemployment and corruption.” “The Congress will raise “pro-people” issues that the governments in Maharashtra and Haryana are trying to deviate from. Lakhs of sugarcane farmers are sitting on Delhi’s border to demand their dues. What about them,” he asked while referring to farmers from Uttar Pradesh who were on their way to Kisan Ghat in Delhi, demanding sugarcane dues, loan waivers and cheap electricity. Also Read – Personal life needs to be respected: Cong on reports of Rahul’s visit abroadWelcoming the election schedule in Maharashtra and Haryana, Khera said that the party is completely ready to contest the polls. Taking on the government over one nation, one poll, the Congress leader said, “The people in Jharkhand were also looking forward to polls in their state. When the government cannot conduct assembly polls in three states simultaneously, talking about one nation, one poll is baseless.” “The issue of suicide by farmers has become very serious in Maharashtra. It has become so serious that the people of Maharashtra are looking forward removing this government,” Khera said, adding that in Haryana, the Congress will raise the issues of disruption of law and order and rise in corruption.
Mumbai: A four-year-girl was allegedly raped by a man when she went to play outside her house in Maharashtra’s Navi Mumbai township, police said on Tuesday. The incident took place on Sunday in Taloja area, located around 35 km from here, following which the accused, Ashok Kumar Yadav (24), was arrested, a police official said. When the girl was playing outside her house, Yadav, a daily wage labourer who stayed nearby, allegedly lured the girl on some pretext and took her to a secluded place where he raped her, he said. Also Read – 2019 most peaceful festive season for J&K: Jitendra Singh When the girl’s parents noticed injuries on her private parts and enquired with her, she told them about the incident, he said. The girl’s father then took her to a hospital and also approached the police. Yadav, a native of Chhattisgarh’s Bilaspur district and working in Navi Mumbai since last few months, was subsequently arrested, the official said. He was booked under Indian Penal Code Section 376 (rape) and relevant provisions of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, he said. The girl was undergoing treatment at a hospital, the official said, adding that her statement was yet to be recorded.
Ahmedabad: Prayer meets were organised at several places in Gujarat, including Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad, on Wednesday morning to pay tributes to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary. A large number of primary school students gathered at Hriday Kunj, Gandhi’s home at the Sabarmati Ashram, to attend an all-faith prayer meet organised on the occasion. They expressed their views on the relevance of Gandhi’s teaching of non-violence in today’s world. Also Read – Personal life needs to be respected: Cong on reports of Rahul’s visit abroad Members of the ashram’s trust, eminent Gandhians and other dignitaries were present on the occasion. Chief Minister Vijay Rupani attended a prayer meet at Porbandar’s Kirti Mandir, the house where Mahatma Gandhi was born on this date in 1869. He also spoke about about the relevance of the Father of the Nation in the present day world. Stressing on the importance of moral values, Rupani said students will be taught this as a subject in government schools. Also Read – Firms staying closed 10 days a month due to recession, govt doing nothing: Priyanka Gandhi Prayers were also held at Kochrab Ashram in Ahmedabad where the Mahatma stayed before shifting base to the Sabarmati Ashram in 1917. Beaides, a mega cleanliness drive was organised on the sea beach in Dandi, the place associated with the historic ‘Salt Satyagrah’ of 1930. As a tribute to Gandhi, hundreds of volunteers participated in the drive to keep the beach clean. Rupani will also take part in a similar cleanliness campaign in Porbandar. In the evening, Prime Minister Narendra Modi is scheduled to visit Ahmedabad, where he will pay tributes to Gandhi at the Sabarmati Ashram and later address a gathering of village heads from different parts of the country while declaring the country open defecation-free.